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Video clips are short clips in video format and predominantly found on the internet where the massive influx of new video clips during 2006 has been dubbed as a new phenomenon having a profound impact on both the internet and other forms of media. Sources for video clips include news and sporting events, historical videos, music videos, television programmes, film trailers and vlogs. The term is also more loosely used to mean any short video less than the length of a traditional television programme. On the Internet With the spread of broadband Internet access, video clips have become very popular online. As of mid 2006 there are tens of millions of video clips available online, with new websites springing up focussing entirely on offering free video clips to users and many established and corporate sites adding video clip content to their websites.. While some video clips are taken from established media sources, community or individual-produced clips are becoming more common. Some individuals host their created works on vlogs, which are video blogs. [edit] Clip culture The widespread popularity of video clips, with the aid of new distribution channels, has evolved into clip culture. It is compared to "lean-back" experience of seeing traditional movies, refers to an internet activity of sharing and viewing a short video, mostly less than 15 minutes. The culture began as early as the development of broadband network, but it sees the boom since 2005 when websites for uploading clips are emerging on the market, including YouTube, Google Video, MSN Video. Those video clips often shows a moments of significance, humour, oddity, prodigy performance. Sources for video clips include news, movies, music video and amateur video shot. In addition to the clip recorded by high-quality camcorders, it is becoming common to produce clips with digital camera, webcam, and mobile phone. [edit] Rise of amateurs Unlike traditional movies largely dominated by studios, clip movies were overwhelmingly supplied by amateurs. In May 2006, The Economist reported that 90% of clips on YouTube came from amateurs, a few of whom are young comedians. It, in effect, also brought amateur talents. In 2005, two Chinese students Huang Yixin and Wei Wei, now dubbed as "Back Dorm Boys" showed their talented in lip-synching in a song of the Backstreet Boys, with their self-conscious grimaces in a video uploaded to some clip websites, has instantly become renown. Not only did they appear on television shows, concerts, but were also granted a contract by a media company in Beijing for lip-syncing for cash. Earlier celebrity of clip culture includes David Elsewhere, a prodigy in popping and liquiding. His performance at Kollaboration Competition in 2001 was widely spread in the internet and was later hired to participate in advertisements for Heineken, iPod and Pepsi. [edit] Citizen journalism Citizen video reporting dates back as early as the development of camcorders, but all videos were screened by the local media outlets of the time, until its spread has been aided by free upload websites in which censorship is limited to make a vast amount of videos available to anyone who wants it. Scenes rarely broadcast on television, and many first-witnessed scenes have since become publicly available. The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004 earthquake strikes Ao Nang, Thailand.Notably, in December 2004, tourist videos on the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami offered worldwide audiences the first scenes of the disaster. In December 2003, videos in Hong Kong showing the bully in De La Salle School has outraged the public, raised a wide concern on school violence and led to the arrest of 11 students. [edit] Vlog In late 2005 to early 2006, a new form of blogging emerged called a vlog. It is a blog that takes video as the primary content, often accompanied by supporting text, image, and additional metadata to provide context. Su Li Walker, an analyst with the Yankee Group, said that like blogs, which have become an extension of traditional media, video blogs will be a supplement to traditional broadcasting. [1] [edit] Convergence with traditional media The potential markets of video clips has caught the attention of traditional studios. In 2006, the producers of Lucky Number Slevin, a film with Morgan Freeman, Lucy Liu and Bruce Willis, made an 8-minute clip for YouTube. Celebrity in traditional media has proven to confer bigger popularity in clip culture. Cyril Takayama, a Japanese-European magician, became famous by showing his theandric skills in Japanese TV magic show in 2004. His fame was achieved only in Japan and the international magicians' culture, until his video clips were later spread across the Internet.

Mp3 Speler

Hier Heb je Allerlei Informatie Over Mp3 spelers en u kunt ook site's vinden waar u een mp3 speler kunt kopen

Media clip

A media clip is a short segment of media either an audio clip or a video clip. Media clips may be promotional in nature, as with movie clips. For instance, to promote their newly-released movies, many actors are accompanied by movie clips on their circuits. Additionally, media clips may be the raw materials of other productions, such as audio clips used for sound effects.

Google Video

Google Video is a free Google service that allows anyone to upload video clips to Google's web servers as well as make their own media available free of charge or through Google Video Store for a cost that they can set. Once uploaded, the video file is saved as a .gvi file under the "Google Videos" folder in "My Videos" and reports of the video(s) details are logged and stored in the user account. The report sorts and lists the number of times that each of the users videos have been viewed and downloaded within a specific time frame. These range from the previous day, week, month or the entire time that the videos have been there for. Totals are calculated and displayed and the information can be downloaded into a spreadsheet format or printed out. Users can search and play videos directly from Google Video, as well as download video files and remotely embed them on their webpages. Competing services include iFilm, MetaCafe, Veoh, and On 9 October 2006 Google agreed to buy former competitor YouTube for $1.65 billion in stock, but YouTube will remain a separate service under its own identity for the near future, though YouTube search results may include Google Video clips, and vice versa Google Video is geared towards providing a large archive of freely searchable videos. Besides amateur media, Internet videos, viral ads, and movie trailers, the service also aims to distribute commercial professional media, such as televised content and movies. It should be noted that a number of educational discourses by Google employees have been recorded and available for viewing via Google Video. The lectures have been done mainly at the employee's former universities. The topics cover Google technologies and software engineering but also include other pioneering efforts by major players in the software engineering field. Various media companies offer content on Google Video for purchase, including CBS programs, NBA, music videos, and independent film. Initially, the content of a number of broadcasting companies (such as ABC, NBC, CNN) was available as free streaming content or stills with closed captioning. In addition, the U.S. National Archive uses Google Video to make historic films available online.[2] [edit] Video distribution methods Google Video offers both free services and commercial videos, the latter controlled with digital rights management. An Adobe Flash viewer plays videos in Flash Video (.flv) format inside the web browser, if the Macromedia flash plugin is installed. [edit] Google Video Player Google Video Player The main window. Developer: Google Latest release: / 2006-09-14 OS: Mac OS X, Windows Use: Video player License: Freeware Website: Google Video Player is another way to view Google videos; it runs on Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. The Google Video Player renders files in Google's own Google Video File (.gvi) media format and supports playlists in "Google Video Pointer" (.gvp) format. When users download to their computers, the resulting file will be a small .gvp (pointer) file rather than a .gvi file. When run, the .gvp file will download a .gvi (movie) file to the user's default directory. According to the readme file, the current version of Google Video Player is not based on VLC Media Player. However, it does include the OpenSSL cryptographic toolkit and some libraries from the Qt widget toolkit.[3] [edit] GVI format and conversion Google Video Files (.gvi), and latterly its .avi files, are modified Audio Video Interleave (.avi) files that have an extra list containing the FourCC "goog" immediately following the header. The video is encoded in DivX4 alongside an MP3 audio stream. DivX video players can render .gvi Google Video Files without format conversion (after changing the extension from .gvi to .avi, although this method of just renaming the file extension does not work with videos purchased with DRM to inhibit unauthorized copying). Among other software VirtualDub is able to read .gvi files and allows the user to convert them into different formats of choice. There are also privately developed software solutions, such as GVideo Fix, that can convert them to .avi format without recompression. MEncoder with "-oac copy -ovc copy" as parameters also suffices. [edit] Very simple conversion with no program 1. It is simple to convert a GVI or GVP file. First, download file. Then open file with notepad. There will be a URL address. Copy the URL into your browser. You will then get a download window from a Google server for the files real format; AVI, MPEG, WMV, ect. Also, the URL will turn blue. 2. An alternative way is to add the following text into your favourites/bookmarks: javascript:if(document.getElementById('macdownloadlink')!=null){window.location.href=document.getElementById('macdownloadlink')}else{alert('Go to Google Video to download videos as AVI.')}; When you are on a page of a video, click this added favourite/bookmark. It will then ask you to open or save the download. [edit] Flash Video The Google Video Player displays a flash video (.flv) file in a supported browser, such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. The flash video file is in Macromedia Flash format, and requires that the Macromedia Flash plugin is installed in the web browser (the latest version of this plugin is called Adobe Flash Player 9). The plugin is available at Macromedia's website. The browser automatically caches the flash file whilst it plays, and it can be retrieved from the browser's cache once it has fully played. In Windows o/s variants this cache is typically located at "C:\Windows\Temporary Internet Files". This flash file will play in Media Player Classic (provided that ffdshow is installed), MPlayer, or in the standalone Wimpy flash player, amongst others. [edit] AVI and MP4 Besides GVI and Flash Video, Google provides its content through downloadable Audio Video Interleave (.avi) and MPEG-4 (.mp4) video files. Not all formats are available through the website's interface, however, depending on the user's operating system. If available, Google's "save as" function for Windows/Mac will produce an .avi file, while the "save as" function for iPod and PSP will produce an .mp4 file. The .avi file is not in standard .avi format. To play the file in a popular media player such as Winamp or Windows Media Player, the file must first be modified using a hex editor (for example the XVI32.exe editor) to delete the first LIST block in the file header, which starts at byte 12 (000C hex) and ends at byte 63 (003F hex). Optionally, the file length (in bytes 5 to 8) should then be amended by subtracting 52 (3F hex - 0C hex = 34 hex). Winamp and Windows Media Player cannot play the unmodified .avi file because the non-standard file header corrupts the file. However, Media Player Classic, MPlayer and the VLC Media Player will play the unmodified .avi file, and the Google .mp4 file, if a DirectShow Filter such as ffdshow is installed. An .mp4 file will play in Winamp if an MPEG4/H.264 DirectShow Filter such as ffdshow and an MP4 Splitter such as Haali are installed, and the extension ;MP4 is added to the Extension List in the Winamp DirectShow decoder configuration. [edit] Third-party extensions Third party browser extensions[4], corresponding scripts[5], bookmarklets[6] and websites[7] facilitate direct and straightforward access to all available formats as well as offering access to users of operating systems not officially supported by Google Video. However, within the Windows operating system, Bookmarklets do not function under Windows 9x or Windows ME. [edit] External embedding of Google Video files Google Video allows select videos to be remotely embedded on other websites and provides the necessary HTML code alongside the media, similar to YouTube. This allows for websites to host large amounts of video remotely on Google Video without running into bandwidth or storage capacity issues. [edit] Uploading videos Users may choose to upload videos either through the Google Video website [2] (limited to 100MB) or alternatively through the Google Video Uploader, available for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and Linux. Major producers with a thousand or more hours of video can apply for Google's Premium Program. While the application is available as three separate downloads, the Linux version is written in Java, a cross-platform programming language, and will therefore also work on other operating systems, including Microsoft Windows, without modifications, providing that the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) is installed. Also worthy of note is the fact that this Java executable (.jar) file is a standalone application that does not require installation. Consequently, it can be run from removable media such as USB flash drives, CD-ROMs, or network storage. This allows the user to upload video even if the computer terminal on which he or she is working will not allow him or her to install programs, such as a public library computer. [edit] Market adoption Despite availability of downloading in multiple formats, being less restrictive on video uploads, and google being a well known organization, google video has had little adoption from the online video market. According to one poll, Google Video has about 8% ,while Youtube has about 27%[8] [edit] Availability of service While initially only available in the United States, over time Google Video has become available to users in more countries and can now be accessed from many other countries, including the United Kingdom, France, Germany and India. Regardless of general availability, content providers are given the opportunity to limit access to video files to only users from certain countries of residence. However, methods of circumventing geographical filtering[9] exist. [edit] Criticisms Google Video has little organization of content and no noticeable pricing scheme[10][11]. However, pay content (available currently in the United States only) is arranged in a few categories. A video ranking in the form of a Top 100 has been introduced and the official Google Video Blog features "Google Picks" (videos considered noteworthy by Google) on a regular basis. "Google Picks" are currently also available via the Google Video homepage. While the lack of a fixed pricing scheme may be perceived as confusing by a number of users, it does offer content providers a wider scope in terms of individual pricing. Whether this pricing concept will be accepted and retained beyond beta remains to be seen. There has also been criticism regarding varying standards used by Google on evaluating the content of each video for suitability. For example, Google might accept a video featuring graphic violence and profanity, but reject a milder one, with no apparent means of objective analysis. [citation needed] The video uploading tool also receives various complaints, due to its "Uploading failed" error message which seems to appear in random cases without any explanation why the upload was not successful. This message sometimes also appears when the upload was successful which can be problematic as the same video may be uploaded again. Google has not yet addressed this issue. [3] Some users who have uploaded videos have reported that their viewing figures have been reset, most notably, Alex Jones's TerrorStorm and Loose Change 911. Additional criticism of Google Video has been on a lack of end user tools to add tables of content and chapters to the videos, which make longer format videos easier to annotate, view, navigate and understand.


Ipod Tekst

iPod is een draagbare MP3-speler van het Amerikaanse technologiebedrijf Apple. De iPod is primair ontworpen om audiobestanden op af te spelen. De bestanden worden opgeslagen op een harde schijf (grote modellen) of op een flashgeheugen (kleine modellen). De capaciteit van deze opslagmethoden is dusdanig groot dat duizenden nummers op een iPod geplaatst kunnen worden. Wereldwijd is de iPod een gigantisch succesverhaal met 40 miljoen verkochte exemplaren (tot 2006). Voor het bewaren van muziekbestanden op de iPod gebruikt men meestal het computerprogramma iTunes, een ander Apple-product. Hiermee kan de muziek van een persoonlijke verzameling cd's in een iPod worden opgeslagen en kunnen muziek-, videobestanden en spellen van het internet worden gedownload en bewaard via de iTunes Store. Begin maart 2006 werd de één-miljardste song van de online-muziekwinkel gedownload: "Speed of Sound" van Coldplay. De iTunes Stores in Europa hebben begin augustus 2006 de kaap van tweehonderd miljoen downloads bereikt. Ook ingesproken teksten kunnen op een iPod worden opgeslagen, om op een, voor de gebruiker, geschikt tijdstip later afgespeeld te worden. Dit heeft tot de rage podcasting geleid. De iPod kan men ook aanwenden als externe harde schijf waarop allerlei andere bestanden bewaard kunnen worden. Sinds de introductie van de iPod Photo (met kleurenscherm) kunnen er ook foto's op worden bekeken. Sinds de introductie van de vijfde generatie-iPod kunnen er ook filmpjes bekeken en zelfs op een televisie getoond worden. Apple had het softwareprogramma iTunes ontwikkeld uit het eerder uitgebrachte SoundJam (van Casady & Greene) om muziekbestanden op een harde schijf in een computer te downloaden en af te spelen. De ontwikkeling van een draagbare mp3-speler kwam op een later tijdstip, toen een ex-Philipswerknemer, Tony Fadell, het idee daarvoor kreeg. Het kostte hem echter veel moeite om fabrikanten te overtuigen van zijn idee. Apple Computer nam Fadell wel aan en vond zijn idee bruikbaar. iPod mini In januari 2004 introduceerde Apple de iPod mini, een compactere versie van zijn voorgangers, uitgerust met een 4 GB harde schijf en verkrijgbaar in 5 pastelkleuren. Critici vonden hem wederom te duur, maar dat stond ook deze keer een succes niet in de weg. Wederom was de bediening aangepast: het scrollwiel was vervangen door een click wheel: de toetsen zijn in het scrollwiel zelf geplaatst, en duwen op de rand boven, onder, links of rechts werkte als een kliktoets. In februari 2005 bracht Apple een nieuwe versie uit van de iPod mini. De consument kan een keuze maken uit vier kleuren en nu ook uit de opslagruimte, namelijk uit 4 GB of 6 GB. Deze nieuwe lijn van iPod mini's heeft een batterij met een werkduur van 18 uur, een stuk langer dan de eerste generatie iPod mini. Sinds 7 september 2005 is de iPod Mini vervangen door de iPod Nano. iPod shuffle In januari 2005, tijdens een Macworld Congres, kondigde Steve Jobs de nieuwe iPod shuffle aan. Deze iPod is aanzienlijk kleiner dan haar voorgangers en door de afwezigheid van een scherm een stuk goedkoper. Hierdoor kan Apple concurrerend blijven met ander fabrikanten van goedkope MP3-spelers. Dit is de eerste iPod die is gebaseerd op NAND flashgeheugen in plaats van een harde schijf. De ipod nano kwam later ook met flash geheugen


In film and broadcasting, a soundbite (or soundbyte) is a very short piece of footage taken from a longer speech or an interview in which someone with authority or the average "man on the street" says something which is considered by those who edit the speech or interview to be the most important point. As the context of what is being said is missing, the insertion of soundbites into news broadcasts or documentaries is open to manipulation and thus requires a very high degree of journalistic ethics. Politicians of the new generation are carefully coached by their spin doctors to produce on-demand soundbites which are clear and to the point. A soundbite is an audiolinguistic and social communications phenomenon whose nature was recognized in the late 20th century, helped by people such as Marshall McLuhan. It is characterized by a short phrase or sentence that deftly captures the essence of what the speaker is trying to say. Such key moments in dialogue (or monologue) stand out better in the audience's memory and thus become the "taste" that best represents the entire "meal" of the larger message or conversation. Soundbites are a natural consequence of people placing ever greater emphasis on summarizing ever-increasing amounts of information in their lives. News media in particular cherish soundbites. Reporters agree that the best news footage contains at least one soundbite. Politicians in turn have learned (along with their speechwriters) to put greater effort into delivering the perfect soundbite. Originality is not necessary but highly valued. Soundbites are useful to help guide footage editors focus on parts of dialogue that help advance the overall message. Not everyone enjoys hearing soundbites. [citation needed] They tend to sound best when delivered unplanned, and the logical inverse is often true -- the planned soundbite can easily ring forced and cast doubt as to the speaker's integrity. The importance of a soundbite is that "the message hits home". [edit] Historical soundbites Classic examples of soundbites include Ronald Reagan's demand that "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" in reference to the increasing social pressure to remove the Berlin Wall. In this context, the well-delivered soundbite serves as a cultural icon that others are likely to know about. More soundbites include: "Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed." In one succinct phrase, the entire Apollo Moon program was culminated. "Houston, we've had a problem." said by James A. Lovell in the Apollo XIII mission "Read my lips: no new taxes", delivered by United States presidential candidate George H. W. Bush "Senator, you are no Jack Kennedy." said by Lloyd Bentsen as a retort to Dan Quayle's comparison of himself to Jack Kennedy in terms of political experience "I feel the hand of history upon our shoulder" ? Tony Blair following the 1998 Good Friday agreement. However, Blair had just commented that "A day like today, it's not a day for soundbites: we can leave those at home". There was also a news agency called "SoundByte News" in the early era of personal computers.


Ourmedia is a media archive, supported by the Internet Archive, which freely hosts any images, text, and video or audio clips which do not violate copyright laws and do not include pornography. The website, which launched on March 21, 2005, was founded by Marc Canter and J.D. Lasica. Ourmedia/Nuestr@sMedios is a global network of activists, academics, and practitioners working toward stronger alternative, community and citizens' media. It was created in 2000 and has held yearly international conferences in several countries. OurMedia's 2007 conference will be held in Australia. See The media archive, Ourmedia, Inc. was incorporated as a nonprofit public benefit corporation in the State of California in September 2005.[1] As of August 2006, Ourmedia has over 110,000 members. The project's Board of Trustees are: J.D. Lasica Brewster Kahle Mia Garlick Brad deGraf Susan Mernit Dave Toole John Seely Brown The Advisory Board includes: Lawrence Lessig Brewster Kahle Howard Rheingold Dan Gillmor Angela Beesley Doc Searls James Boyle Susan Wu Charles Nesson Susan Mernit Karen Worcman Denise Atchley Alexander Cohen David Bollier Richard Prelinger Leslie Rule Bryan Alexander Jon Noring Nathon Gunn Steve Rosenbaum Joaquin Alvarado Ourmedia is powered by Drupal


vMix is an online community dedicated to the creation and sharing of video clips and slideshows. vMix was founded in 2005 by executives from, Universal Music Group, Twentieth Century Fox, Apple Computer and Netscape. vMix screens all uploaded content to ensure no objectionable material is distributed and copyrights are respected.

YouTube Ned

YouTube is een website voor het kosteloos uploaden, bekijken en delen van videofilms door gebruikers. Het motto van deze website is YouTube, Broadcast Yourself. De uploader kan de film voorzien van tags (trefwoorden) om een niet-hiërarchische classificering mogelijk maken (folksonomie). Deze site is opgericht in februari 2005 door drie voormalige medewerkers van PayPal. In september 2006 werden er zo'n 60.000 filmpjes per dag op deze site gezet en volgens de site zouden er meer dan 100 miljoen filmpjes per dag bekeken worden. Om video's up te loaden, moet er eerst een account aangemaakt worden. Vervolgens kan via een webgebaseerde uploadformulier een video geüpload worden. Elke video die is geüpload, kan worden doorzocht op teksten die door de gebruiker bij het filmpje is toegevoegd. Elke gebruiker heeft een eigen "televisiekanaal", waarop al zijn filmpjes te bekijken zijn. De site wordt soms bekritiseerd omdat de beeldkwaliteit matig is en soms zijn beeld en geluid niet synchroon. Ook is er veel illegaal beeldmateriaal te zien waarop auteursrecht rust. Vier medewerkers van YouTube controleren de filmpjes op hun welvoeglijkheid. Na klachten van een Japanse auteursrechtenorganisatie zijn 30.000 filmpjes van YouTube verwijderd. Op maandag 9 oktober 2006 werd bekend gemaakt dat Google YouTube heeft overgenomen voor een bedrag van 1,65 miljard dollar. Google maakte dit bekend nadat de beurs in New York werd gesloten. Google had al een met YouTube concurrerende website, namelijk Google Video. werd opgericht in februari 2005 door Chad Hurley, Steve Chen en Jawed Karim, alle drie voormalig medewerkers van PayPal. Alle medewerkers waren al vroeg actief in de computerindustrie. De domeinnaam werd geregistreerd op 15 februari 2005. In de maanden erna werd de website langzaam opgezet. In mei 2005 werd vertoond hoe de website er uit zou gaan zien. Een half jaar later was de website volledig actief. Het bedrijf werd bestuurd vanuit een garage in San Mateo. De website groeide zeer snel in populariteit, en al in 2006 stond de website in de top 10 van meestbezochte websites wereldwijd. Concurrenten Google Video en Yahoo Video bleven ver achter bij YouTube.


YouTube is a popular free video sharing Web site which lets users upload, view, and share video clips. Founded in February 2005 by three employees of PayPal, the San Bruno-based service utilizes Adobe Flash technology to display video. The wide variety of site content includes movie and TV clips and music videos, as well as amateur content such as videoblogging. Currently staffed by 67 employees[1], the company was named TIME magazine's "Invention of the Year" for 2006.[2] In October 2006, Google, Inc., announced that it had reached a deal to acquire the company for $1.65 billion USD in Google's stock. The deal closed on 13 November 2006.[3] was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal.[4] Prior to PayPal, Hurley studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.[5] The domain name "" was activated on February 15, 2005,[6] and the website was developed over the following months. The creators offered the public a preview of the site in May 2005, and six months later, YouTube made its official debut.go on youtube and type in my strong pokemon or search for padua music video.from hiou2 In August of 2005, Macromedia released FlashPlayer 8, which uses On2 Technologies' VP6 video codec, providing a large increase in video quality compared to FlashPlayer 7 and had a very small download size, decreasing download time. For the first time ever, users did not have to use a separate video player, like Windows Media Player, Realplayer, or Apple's Quicktime Player. They could now watch decent video in a web page practically instantly. Without this new technology, it's unlikely YouTube would have taken off as fast as it did. The company's humble beginnings in a garage and commitment to offering free services necessitated outside financial backing. In November of 2005, venture capital firm Sequoia Capital invested an initial $3.5 million;[7] additionally, Roelof Botha, partner of the firm and former CFO of PayPal, joined the YouTube board of directors. In April 2006, Sequoia put an additional $8 million into the company, which had experienced a boom of popularity and growth in just its first few months.[8] At present, YouTube is one of the fastest-growing websites on the World Wide Web,[9] and is ranked as the 10th most popular website on Alexa, far outpacing even MySpace's growth.[10] According to a July 16, 2006 survey, 100 million clips are viewed daily on YouTube, with an additional 65,000 new videos uploaded per 24 hours. The site has almost 20 million visitors each month, according to Nielsen/NetRatings,[11] where around 44% are female, 56% male, and the 12- to 17-year-old age group is dominant.[12] Youtube's pre-eminence in the online video market is staggering. According to the website, Youtube commands up to 64% of the UK online video market.[13] On October 9, 2006, it was announced that the company will be purchased by Google for US$1.65 billion in stock. The purchase agreement between Google and YouTube came after YouTube presented three agreements with media companies in an attempt to escape the threat of copyright-infringement lawsuits. YouTube will continue to operate independently, and the company's 67 employees and its co-founders will continue working within the company.[14] The deal to acquire YouTube closed on November 13. It is Google's biggest purchase to date. [1] Word spreads and traditional media take notice In its short time on the web, YouTube has grown quickly and received much attention. Online word-of-mouth has been primarily responsible for YouTube's growth since its inception, and gave the site its first surge of publicity when it hosted the popular Saturday Night Live short Lazy Sunday.[15] However, YouTube's official policy prohibits submission of copyrighted material, and NBC Universal, owners of SNL, soon decided to take action. In February 2006, NBC asked for the removal of some of its copyrighted content from YouTube, including Lazy Sunday and 2006 Olympics clips.[7][16] The following month, in an attempt to strengthen its policy against copyright infringement, YouTube set a 10-minute maximum limit on video length (except for content submitted via its Director Program, which specifically hosts original material by amateur filmmakers). However, the real cutoff is 10:58. This restriction is often circumvented by uploaders, who instead split their original video into smaller segments, each shorter than the 10-minute limit. Though YouTube had done its part to comply with NBC's demands, the incident made the news, giving YouTube its most prominent publicity yet. As the site continued to grow, NBC began to realize the possibilities, and in June 2006 made an unusual move. The network had reconsidered its actions and was announcing a strategic partnership with YouTube. Under the terms of the partnership, an official NBC channel will be set up on YouTube, showcasing promotional clips for the series The Office. YouTube will also promote NBC's videos throughout its site.[17] CBS, which had previously also asked YouTube to remove several of its clips, followed suit in July 2006. In a statement indicative of how the traditional media industry's perception of YouTube (and similar sites) has changed, Sean McManus, president of CBS News and Sports noted: Our inclination now is, the more exposure we get from clips like that, the better it is for CBS News and the CBS television network, so in retrospect we probably should have embraced the exposure, and embraced the attention it was bringing CBS, instead of being parochial and saying ?let?s pull it down.?[18] In August of 2006, YouTube announced that, within 18 months, it hopes to offer every music video ever created, while still remaining free of charge. Warner Music Group and EMI have confirmed that they are among the companies in talks to implement this plan.[19] In September Warner Music and YouTube signed a deal, in which YouTube will be allowed to host every music video Warner produced while sharing a portion of the advertisement income. Additionally, user-created videos on YouTube will be allowed to use Warner songs in their soundtracks.[20] On October 9, CBS, along with Universal Music Group and Sony BMG Music Entertainment, also agreed to provide content to YouTube.[21] Accessibility On YouTube: Users may submit videos in several common-file formats (such as .mpeg and .avi). YouTube automatically converts them to Flash Video (with extension .flv) and makes them available for online viewing. Flash Video is a popular video format among large hosting sites due to its wide compatibility. Outside YouTube: Each video is accompanied by the full HTML markup for linking to it and/or embedding it within another page; a small addition to the markup for the latter will make the video autoplay when the page is accessed. These simple cut-and-paste options are popular particularly with users of social/networking sites. Poor experiences have however been cited by members of such sites,[22] where autoplaying embedded YouTube videos has been reported to slow down page loading time or even to cause browsers to crash. General Concerns: Videos can be downloaded off YouTube's website and viewed offline with various video player applications; however, this may be a violation of copyright. Download Quality: With the update to Flash G.U.I (Graphic User Interface) file formats, YouTube has had problems with videos loading altogether on the Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox web browsers. No news has been given for when this will be repaired.[citation needed] Index sites: Recently many sites had started to bloom while offering an index service, which arrange the content on YouTube by relativity, ie links arranged by order of seasons and episodes of a certain show. Some of the sites, such as TvLinks or the recently shut-down Daily-Episodes, gather around them a rather large community of users, which make requests and report bad links. Revenue model Before being bought by Google, YouTube stated that its business model is advertising-based. Some industry commentators have speculated that YouTube's running costs ? specifically the bandwidth required ? may be as high as US$1 million per-month,[23] thereby fuelling criticisms that the company, like many internet start-ups, did not have a viably implemented business model. Advertisements were launched on the site beginning in March 2006. In April, YouTube started using Google AdSense. YouTube subsequently stopped using AdSense. Given its traffic levels, video streams and pageviews, some have calculated that YouTube's potential revenues could be in the millions per month.[24] Controversies Copyright infringement YouTube policy does not allow content to be uploaded by anyone not permitted by United States copyright law to do so, and the company frequently removes uploaded infringing content. Nonetheless, a large amount of it continues to be uploaded. Generally, unless the copyright holder reports them, YouTube only discovers these videos via indications within the YouTube community through self-policing. The primary way in which YouTube identifies the content of a video is through the search terms that uploaders associate with clips. Some users have taken to creating alternative words as search terms to be entered when uploading specific type of files (similar to the deliberate misspelling of band names on MP3 filesharing networks). For a short time, members could also report one another. The service offers a flagging feature, intended as a means for reporting questionable content, including that which might constitute copyright infringement. However, the feature can be susceptible to abuse; for a time, some users were flagging other users' original content for copyright violations, purely out of spite. YouTube proceeded to remove copyright infringement from the list of offenses flaggable by members. On October 5, 2006 the Japanese Society for Rights of Authors, Composers and Publishers (JASRAC) had their copyright complaints regarding Japanese media on YouTube finalized. Thousands of media from popular Japanese artists (such as Tokyo Jihen and various other music including Jpop) were removed. When CBS and Universal Music Group signed agreements to provide content to YouTube on October 9, they also announced that they would use new technology that will help them find copyrighted material and remove it.[21] TV journalist Robert Tur filed the first lawsuit against the company in summer 2006, alleging copyright infringement for hosting a number of famous news clips without permission. The case has yet to be resolved.[25][26] On November 9th, 2006, Artie Lange said his lawyer was in talks with YouTube, after finding his entire DVD, It's the Whiskey Talking, available for free on their site. Artie said he will either demand money from them, or else he will sue. [27] Use of acoustic fingerprints On October 12, 2006, YouTube announced that because of recent agreements with high-profile content creators, they were now required to use anti-piracy software. The software uses an audio-signature technology that can spot a low-quality copy of a licensed music video or other content. YouTube would have to substitute an approved version of the clip or take the material down automatically. Analysts noted removal of content based on such a system might negatively impact user satisfaction. This is frustrating for viewers who upload anime music videos, because most AMV's use licensed music content. [28] [29] Violence On their 6:30 PM bulletin on June 1, 2006, ITV News in the UK reported that YouTube and sites like it were encouraging violence and bullying amongst teenagers, who were filming fights on their mobile phones (see happy slapping), and then uploading them to YouTube. While the site provides a function for reporting excessively violent videos, the news report stated that communication with the company was difficult.[30] White House Office of National Drug Control Policy involvement In September 2006, the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) began running anti-drug PSAs through the YouTube System.[31] In response, many YouTube users began uploading rebuttals and rating the public service announcements down. Since mid-September, the ONDCP has removed the ability to rate or comment on any of their PSAs as a result. New York Times reports anti-U.S. videos On October 5th, 2006, The New York Times reported on the proliferation of what they considered to be anti-U.S. videos on YouTube.[32] Zucker political ad On October 10th, 2006, YouTube users flagged the political ad of noted producer, and former long-time Democrat, David Zucker as being inappropriate for viewers under 18.[33] [34] The ad criticized the Clinton administration and the Democratic Party as weak in protecting national security. Some questioned YouTube's flag--normally used to indicate material that is inappropriate for viewers under 18--though Zucker's ad contains nothing profane or pornographic. The GOP decided not to use Zucker's ad in the 2006 campaign, because it was considered "over the top." On October 12th, YouTube removed the age-verification page and no longer censored the video for viewers under 18. Domain name problem YouTube's immense success has unintentionally reduced business for an American company, Universal Tube and Rollerform Equipment Corp., whose website,, has frequently been shut down by extremely high numbers of visitors unsure about the spelling of YouTube's domain name.[35] At the beginning of November 2006, Universal Tube filed suit in federal court against YouTube.[36] Utube, based out of Perrysburg, Ohio, has requested as part of their suit that the domain be transferred to them.[37] Notable effects on YouTube users YouTube's popularity has led to the creation of many YouTube Internet celebrities, popular individuals who have attracted significant publicity in their home countries from their videos.[38] These memes have come from many different backgrounds. The most subscribed YouTube member, as of August 16, 2006, is Geriatric1927, a 79-year-old pensioner from England who gained widespread recognition within a week of making his debut on the site.[39] For these users, the Internet fame has had various unexpected effects. By way of example, YouTube user and former receptionist Brooke Brodack from Massachusetts has been signed by NBC's Carson Daly for an 18-month development contract.[40] On the other hand, Australian user Emmalina's fame led to her computer being hacked and private information stolen from her computer, forcing her to remove her videos from YouTube.[41] Another has been the uncovered fictional blog of lonelygirl15, now discovered to be the work of New Zealand actress Jessica Rose and some film directors. Youtube has also become a means of promoting bands and their music. One such example is OK Go which got a huge radio hit and an MTV Video Music Awards performance out of the treadmill video for Here It Goes Again.

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